• Is a financial institution which performs activities or services for another financial institution. Sometimes, this arrangement occurs because of a lack of physical presence in a particular geographic area. Other times it may be due to an outsourcing or need for specialized services such as clearance and physical transfers of securities.
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| ||American depositary receipt: Is an instrument which is issued in the United States but based on foreign securities. This security facilitates trading and investment because it is quoted in terms of the U.S. Dollar. This compares to the initial situation of the underlying shares quoted and traded in currencies other than the U. S. dollar.Abbreviated ADR or ADRS. Certificates issued by a U.S. depositary bank, representing foreign shares held by the bank, usually by a branch or Correspondent in the country of issue. One ADR may represent a portion of a foreign share, one share or a bundle of shares of a foreign corporation. If the ADR's are sponsored, the corporation provides financial information and other assistance to the bank and may subsidize the administration of the ADRs. Unsponsored ADRs do not receive such assistance. ADRs carry the same currency, political and economic risks as the underlying foreign share; the prices of the two, adjusted for the SDR/ordinary ratio, are kept essentially identical by arbitrage. American depositary shares (ADSs) are a similar form of certification.Claims issued by U.S. banks representing ownership of shares of a foreign company's stock held on deposit by the U.S. bank in the foreign market and issued in dollars to U.S. investors.A negotiable certificate representing a given number of shares of stock in a foreign corporation; it is bought and sold in the American securities markets, just as stock is traded. ADRs are issued by a U.S. bank, consisting of a bundle of shares of a foreign corporation that are being held in custody overseas. ADRs can be sponsored, which means the corporation provides financial and other information to the bank, or unsponsored. While ADRs have the same currency and economic risks as the underlying foreign shares, they are much more convenient for U.S. shareholders to own since there are no problems in transferring securities from a foreign country or currency conversion.|
| ||Daylight overdraft: Being overdrawn (OD) in a deposit account during some of a day's business hours. Foreign banks typically run big daylight overdrafts with their U.S. Correspondent bank. A daylight overdraft exposes the institution that extends it to a credit risk.|
| ||Federal home loan banks: The institutions that regulate and lend to savings and loan associations. The Federal Home Loan Banks play a role analogous to that played by the Federal Reserve Banks vis- -vis member commercial banks.Abbreviated FHLB. Government sponsored wholesale banks (currently 12 regional banks) that lend funds and provide Correspondent banking services to member commercial banks, thrift institutions, credit unions and insurance companies. The mission of the FHLBs is to liquefy the housing related assets of its members who must purchase stock in their district Bank.The institutions that regulate and lend to savings and loan associations. The Federal Home Loan Banks plays a role analogous to that played by the Federal Reserve Banks vis-a'-vis member commercial banks.|
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Studies indicate that the one quality all successful people have is persistence. They're willing to spend more time accomplishing a task and to persevere in the face of many difficult odds. There's a very positive relationship between people's ability to accomplish any task and the time they're willing to spend on it. – Dr. Joyce