
INTEREST Accrued interest
 • Is the amount of interest which has accumulated since the last coupon interest payment. It is the amount of interest which the holder is entitled but is not due until the payment date. The buyer pays the seller of the bond the accrued interest.
 • The accumulated coupon interest earned but not yet paid to the seller of a bond by the buyer (unless the bond is in default).
 • Interest due from issue or from the last coupon date to the present on an interestbearing security. The buyer of the security pays the quoted dollar price plus accrued interest.
 Amortizing interest rate swap
 • Swap in which the principal or national amount rises (falls) as interest rates rise (decline).
 Base interest rate
 • Related: Benchmark interest rate.
 Benchmark interest rate
 • Also called the base interest rate, it is the minimum interest rate investors will demand for investing in a nonTreasury security. It is also tied to the yield to maturity offered on a comparablematurity Treasury security that was most recently issued ( ontherun ).
 Best interests of creditors test
 • The requirement that a claim holder voting against a plan of reorganization must receive at least as much as he would have if the debtor were liquidated.
 Capitalized interest
 • Interest that is not immediately expensed, but rather is considered as an asset and is then amortized through the income statement over time.
 Cash flow after interest and taxes
 • Net income plus depreciation.
 Compound interest
 • Interest paid on previously earned interest as well as on the principal.
 • Interest that is credited on both principal and previously credited interest.
 Compounded interest
 • Interest earned on a given deposit that has become part of the principal at the end of a specified period.
 Covered interest arbitrage
 • A portfolio manager invests dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign currency and hedges his resulting foreign exchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for dollars.
 • Investing dollars in an instrument denominated in a foreign currency and hedging the resulting foreignexchange risk by selling the proceeds of the investment forward for dollars.
 Earnings before interest and taxes
 • Abbreviated EBIT. A financial measure defined as revenues less cost of goods sold and selling, general, and administrative expenses. In other words, operating and nonoperating profit before the deduction of interest and income taxes.
 Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization
 • Although it is not defined by GAAP, EBITDA can be used to analyze a company's profitability. Differs from a Cash Flow statement by excluding changes in working capital and payments for taxes and interest. Calculated by adding Net Income, income taxes, Interest, Depreciation, and Amortization.
 Effective annual interest rate
 • An annual measure of the time value of money that fully reflects the effects of compounding.
 Effective interest rate international context
 • The rate equal to the nominal rate plus (or minus) any forecast appreciation (or depreciation) of a foreign currency relative to the currency of the MNC parent.
 Equilibrium rate of interest
 • The interest rate that clears the market. Also called the marketclearing interest rate.
 Forward interest rate
 • Interest rate fixed today on a loan to be made at some future date.
 Future value interest factor
 • The multiplier used to calculate at a specified interest rate, the future value of a present amount as of a given time.
 Future value interest factor for an annuity
 • The multiplier used to calculate the future value of an ordinary annuity at a specified interest rate over a given period of time.
 Gross interest
 • Interest earned before taxes are deducted.
 Guaranteed investment interest contract
 • Abbreviated GIC. Debt instrument sold in large denominations often bought for retirement plans. The word guaranteed refers to the interest rate paid on the GIC; the principal is at risk.
 Indication of interest
 • Occurs when a client states his or her interest in purchasing a new issue before its effective date. This interest is nonbinding.
 Interest
 • Is either the interest rate or the income from a credit instrument.
 • The return paid on debt financing. Interest income is taxable in the hands of the investor at their personal marginal tax rate. Interest expense is usually a taxdeductible expense of the corporate borrower.
 • The charge for the privilege of borrowing money, usually expressed as an annual percentage rate.
 • The price paid for borrowing money. It is expressed as a percentage rate over a period of time and reflects the rate of exchange of present consumption for future consumption. Also, a share or title in property.
 Interest calculations and related formulas
 • Are quite varied yet interrelated. Some of the standard computations are:
 Interest Compounded Annually
 Interest Compounded Continuously
 Interest Discounted Annually (Present Value of Reversion)
 Interest Discounted Continuously
 Interest Impact on Accumulation of 1 Per Period
 Interest Impact on Instalment to Amortize or Amortization
 Interest Impact on Present Value of Ordinary Annuity of 1 Per Period
 Interest Impact on Sinking Fund Factor
These formulae are predicated on calculating values basis 1 unit of currency. Here, it is one dollar. To adjust for other amounts such as five hundred or one thousand dollars then multiply the resulting factor by 500 or 1,000, respectively. By solving for the appropriate factor based on 1.0000 simplifies the analysis and verification process.  Interest compounded annually
 • Is calculated by the following formula:
Amount = (1 + interest rate)^{t }where i is the interest rate and t is expressed decimally (.05 for 5 percent). Also, t is the time and .5 refers to 1/2 of a year, 2 equals 2 years and 7.75 equals 7 3/4 years.  Interest compounded continuously
 • Is calculated by the following formula:
Amount = e^{it } where e is equal to 2.7183, i is the interest rate and t is expressed decimally (.05 for 5 percent). Also, t is the time and .5 refers to 1/2 of a year, 2 equals 2 years and 7.75 equals 7 3/4 years.  Interest coverage
 • The number of times all interest charges are earned by pretax, preinterest earnings, typically at least 3 times. The formula is the Interest expense plus pretax income , and divide this sum by the interest expense.
 Interest coverage ratio
 • The ratio of the earnings before interest and taxes to the annual interest expense. This ratio measures a firm's ability to pay interest.
 Interest coverage test
 • A debt limitation that prohibits the issuance of additional longterm debt if the issuer's interest coverage would, as a result of the issue, fall below some specified minimum.
 Interest discounted annually present value of reversion
 • Is calculated by the following formula:
Amount = (1 + interest rate)^{t }or, Amount = __1___ (1 + i)^{t }where i is the interest rate and t is expressed decimally (.05 for 5 percent). Also, t is the time and .5 refers to 1/2 of a year, 2 equals 2 years and 7.75 equals 7 3/4 years.  Interest discounted continuously
 • Is calculated by the following formula:
Amount = e^{it }where e is equal to 2.7183, i is the interest rate and t is expressed decimally (.05 for 5 percent). Also, t is the time and .5 refers to 1/2 of a year, 2 equals 2 years and 7.75 equals 7 3/4 years.  Interest equalization tax
 • Tax on foreign investment by residents of the U.S. which was abolished in 1974.
 Interest equivalent factor
 • A taxrelated adjustment that must be made that allows the beforetax dividend yield on equity securities to be compared to the beforetax yield on debt securities.
 Interest impact on accumulation of 1 per period
 • Is calculated by the following formula:
Amount = [(1+i)^{t}1]/i where i is the interest rate and t is expressed decimally (.05 for 5 percent). Also, t is the time and .5 refers to 1/2 of a year, 2 equals 2 years and 7.75 equals 7 3/4 years.  Interest impact on instalment to amortize or amortization
 • Is calculated by the following formula:
Amount = _____i_____ [ 1 (1/1+i)^{t }] where i is the interest rate and t is expressed decimally (.05 for 5 percent). Also, t is the time and .5 refers to 1/2 of a year, 2 equals 2 years and 7.75 equals 7 3/4 years.  Interest impact on present value of ordinary annuity of 1 per period
 • Is calculated by the following formula:
Amount = 1 [1/(1+i)^{t}] i where i is the interest rate and t is expressed decimally (.05 for 5 percent). Also, t is the time and .5 refers to 1/2 of a year, 2 equals 2 years and 7.75 equals 7 3/4 years.  Interest impact on sinking fund factor
 • Is calculated by the following formula:
Amount = ___i___ z(1+i)^{t}1 where i is the interest rate and t is expressed decimally (.05 for 5 percent). Also, t is the time and .5 refers to 1/2 of a year, 2 equals 2 years and 7.75 equals 7 3/4 years.  Interest on interest
 • Interest earned on reinvestment of each interest payment on money invested. See: compound interest.
 Interest only
 • Is a security whose value is predicated on a discounted interest rate structure. Typically, this is a CMO type derivative product. Prepayment activity is a dominant evaluation factor.
 Interest only strip
 • Abbreviated IO. A security based solely on the interest payments form a pool of mortgages, Treasury bonds, or other bonds. Once the principal on the mortgages or bonds has been repaid, interest payments stop and the value of the IO falls to zero.
 Interest payments
 • Contractual debt payments based on the coupon rate of interest and the principal amount.
 Interest rate
 • The cost of money. The greater the risk of the debt security, the higher the interest rate lenders will require. The compensation paid by the borrower of funds to the lender; from the borrower's point of view, the cost of borrowing funds.
 • This is the cost of borrowing. If the interest rate is 10% and you borrow $1,000, then $100 must be paid as interest payments at the end of each year.
 • Is either the coupon or floating rate attached to a credit instrument or lending operation.
 Interest rate agreement
 • An agreement whereby one party, for an upfront premium, agrees to compensate the other at specific time periods if a designated interest rate (the reference rate) is different from a predetermined level (the strike rate).
 Interest rate buydowns
 • One form of government incentive used to encourage corporate capital expenditures involving Government payments of interest on a loan on behalf of a company.
 Interest rate cap
 • Also called an interest rate ceiling, an interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate exceeds the strike rate.
 Interest rate ceiling
 • Related: interest rate cap.
 Interest rate exposure
 • Risk of gain or loss to which an institution is exposed due to possible changes in interestrate levels.
 Interest rate floor
 • An interest rate agreement in which payments are made when the reference rate falls below the strike rate.
 Interest rate on debt
 • The firm's cost of debt capital.
 Interest rate parity theorem
 • Interest rates in different countries are generally different because of the differences in inflation rates. Interest rate parity holds if the differences in interest rates are exactly offset by differences in inflation rates and the resulting currency depreciation. Assume that the riskfree interest rate in the US is 5% and in Mexico 15%. Assume that it takes 10 pesos to USD now and oneyear forward price is 10.952381 MP/USD. If you invest $1000 now, next year, you end up with $1050 USD. If you convert $1000 into pesos now, you end up with 10,000 MP, lend them at 15%, and end up with 11,500 MP, convert them back into USD at the forward price of 10.95, you end up with exactly $1050 USD next year, which is exactly the same as if you lent in the US. This is an example of interest rate parity.
 • Interest rate differential between two countries is equal to the difference between the forward foreign exchange rate and the spot rate.
 Interest rate risk
 • The chance that interest rates will change and thereby change the required return and bond value. Rising rates, which result in decreasing bond values, are of greatest concern.
 • The risk that a security's value changes due to a change in interest rates. For example, a bond's price drops as interest rates rise. For a depository institution, also called funding risk, the risk that spread income will suffer because of a change in interest rates.
 • The risk of changes in value due to changes in interest rate is called interest rate risk. Long lived assets lose more of their value when interest rates rise than short lived assets. If a bank has more longlived assets than liabilities, then the bank worries about interest rate increases.
 • Is the risk associated with changes in general interest rate levels or yield curves. This compares to Prepayment Risk.
 Interest rate risk management
 • If a bank expects a rise in interest rates, it increases the maturity of its liabilities and decreases the maturity of its assets. If a bank expects the interest rates to remain the same or decline, it holds more long term assets than liabilities.
 Interest rate swap
 • An exchange by borrowers or asset holders of interestrate payments at two different rates (often one rate is fixed, the other floating). In a basis swap, both rates are floating.
 • The buyer of the swap agrees to make a number of fixed interest rate payments periodically to the seller on some agreed upon notational amount. In return, the seller agrees to make floating rate interest payment on the same dates to the buyer on the same notational amount.
 • A binding agreement between counterparties to exchange periodic interest payments on some predetermined dollar principal, which is called the notional principal amount. For example, one party will pay fixed and receive variable.
 • Is the contract whereby one party typically agrees to exchange a floating rate for a fixed coupon rate. There are many variations to this theme. Some of these other swaps can be cross border, fixedforfixed, or floatingfor floating. The common denominator to these transactions is the swapping of cashflows and not principal amounts. There are predetermined periodic adjustments in cash flow payments.
 Interest subsidy
 • A firm's deduction of the interest payments on its debt from its earnings before it calculates its tax bill under current tax law.
 Interest tax shield
 • The reduction in income taxes that results from the taxdeductibility of interest payments.
 Minority interest
 • An outside ownership interest in a subsidiary that is consolidated with the parent for financial reporting purposes.
 Net interest margin
 • A ratio used for evaluating management for bank stocks. Measures the difference between interest paid and interest collected.
 • Is the difference between the interest revenue and the interest expense. Sometimes, it is referred to as the spread.
 Nominal interest rate
 • The interest rate unadjusted for inflation.
 Nominal interest rate international context
 • The stated interest rate charged on financing when only the MNC parent's currency is involved.
 Nominal rate of interest
 • The actual rate of interest charged by the supplier of funds and paid by the demander.
 Open interest
 • The total number of derivative contracts traded that not yet been liquidated either by an offsetting derivative transaction or by delivery. Related: liquidation
 • Is the amount of open contracts for the futures and options markets. This amount can fluctuate throughout the day and daybyday. It represents the quantity of contracts which are subject to offset by either liquidation of long positions, covering of short positions or making and taking delivery. Sometimes referred to as commitment or open commitment.
 Pooling of interests
 • An accounting method for reporting acquisitions accomplished through the use of equity. The combined assets of the merged entity are consolidated using book value, as opposed to the purchase method, which uses market value. The merging entities' financial results are combined as though the two entities have always been a single entity.
 Present value interest factor
 • The multiplier used to calculate at a specified discount rate the present value of an amount to be received in a future period.
 Present value interest factor for an annuity
 • The multiplier used to calculate the present value of an annuity at a specified discount rate over a given period of time.
 Rate of interest
 • The rate, as a proportion of the principal, at which interest is computed.
 Real interest rate
 • The real interest rate is the interest rate that would prevail in an economy with no inflation and no risk. Real interest rate is determined by the propensity to save (supply of funds) and by the demand for capital. Real interest rate equals nominal interest rate minus expected inflation.
 • The rate of interest excluding the effect of inflation; that is, the rate that is earned in terms of constantpurchasingpower dollars. Interest rate expressed in terms of real goods, i.e. nominal interest rate adjusted for inflation.
 Real rate of interest
 • The rate that creates an equilibrium between the supply of savings and the demand for investment funds in a perfect world, without inflation, where funds suppliers and demanders have no liquidity preference and all outcomes are certain.
 Short interest
 • The total number of shares of a security that have been sold short by customers and securities firms. See also: Short Selling.
 • This is the total number of shares of a security that investors have borrowed, then sold in the hope that the security will fall in value. An investor then buys back the shares and pockets the difference as profit.
 Simple interest
 • Interest calculated only on the initial investment. Related: compound interest.
 Spot interest rate
 • Interest rate fixed today on a loan that is made today. Related: forward interest rates.
 Stated annual interest rate
 • The interest rate expressed as a per annum percentage, by which interest payment is determined.
 Swap interest rate
 • The buyer of the Swap agrees to make a number of fixed interest rate payments periodically to the seller or some agreed upon notional amount. In return, the seller agrees to make floating rate interest payment on the same dates to the buyer on the same notional amount. By entering into the swap, both parties attempt to hedge their interest rate exposures.
 Term structure of interest rates
 • The relationship between the interest rate or rate of return (as measured by the yield to maturity on a bond) and the time to maturity for similar risk debt securities.
 • Relationship between \interest rates on bonds of different maturities usually depicted in the form of a graph often depicted as a yield curve. Harvey shows that inverted term structures (long rates below short rates) have preceded every recession over the past 30 years.
 Term structure of interest rates and volatility
 • Refers to the variability of shortterm rates relative to longerterm rates. It has been documented that shortterm rates exhibit greater variability or volatility than longterm rates. However, longerterm instruments experience greater price sensitivity than shortterm instruments for a given change in the underlying rate. A quick measure of this price sensitivity is provided by duration. Typically, debt instruments without option features, explicit or implicit, have greater duration with longer maturities. Zero coupon securities tend to have the greater price sensitivity relative to coupon paying securities. See Duration.
 Times interest covered
 • Times Interest Covered refers to the earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) divided by the interest payments. Higher interest coverage makes the firm less risky.
 Times interest earned ratio
 • Measures the firm's ability to make contractual interest payments. Sometimes called the interest coverage ratio.
 • Earnings before interest and tax, divided by interest payments.
 True interest cost
 • For a security such as commercial paper that is sold on a discount basis, the coupon rate required to provide an identical return assuming a couponbearing instrument of like maturity that pays interest in arrears.


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